First, after the Battle of Valmy on 22 September 1792, General Dumouriez negotiated with the Prussians who evacuated France. This time Napoleon was sent into exile at St. Helena, while Louis XVIII was restored a second time to the throne. The ensuing debt and financial crisis contributed to the unpopularity of the Ancien Régime. As a last-ditch attempt to get new monetary reforms approved, Louis XVI convoked the Estates-General on 8 August 1788, setting the date of their opening on 1 May 1789. That characteristics played into the hands of a Zoé Victoire Talon, styled Countess of Cayla. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen of 1789, French involvement in the Seven Years' War, Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick. Roi de France de 1774 à 1792. Charles X (1757-1836), king of France and Navarre (1824-30). Gaiman went to Paris on 20 November and told Jean-Marie Roland, Girondinist Minister of the Interior, who ordered it opened. Young Count of Provence. His uncle, the future. Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; French pronunciation: [lwi sɛːz]; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution. Comte de PROVENCE (1755-1824), entretien avec le comte de La Marck.  Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. However, his indecision, many delays, and misunderstanding of France were responsible for the failure of the escape. Executive summary: Dauphin, Titular King of France. Most modern historians agree that Louis had no surgery – for instance, as late as 1777, the Prussian envoy, Baron Goltz, reported that the King of France had definitely declined the operation. However, when it came to morals, he was most like his younger brother, the Count of Artois (later Charles X). 37–39. First, the majority of the population stood in favor of the Parlement against the King, and thus continuously rebelled against him. King Louis XVI : Be quiet, be quiet, both of you! Besides his love for routine, Louis XVIII was considered to be emotionally needy. The last thing Louis said to him was that he needed to control his tears because all eyes would be upon him.  In 1782, he sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan.  In October 1781, the French naval blockade was instrumental in forcing a British army under Cornwallis to surrender at the Siege of Yorktown. Portrait of Louis XVIII by François Gérard. , At the individual level, the failure of the escape plans was due to a series of misadventures, delays, misinterpretations, and poor judgments. The quarreling, however, did not stop them from having sexual relations because she became pregnant twice, although both pregnancies ended in miscarriage. He attempted to gain public favor in 1781 by publishing of the first ever accounting of the French Crown's expenses and accounts, the Compte-rendu au Roi. Moreover, every penny spent on it came from the King’s own purse as there was no traces in the official budget of the Maison du Roi. Upon the refusal of the members of the Parlement, Louis XVI tried to use his absolute power to subjugate them by every means: enforcing in many occasions the registration of his reforms (6 August 1787, 19 November 1787, and 8 May 1788), exiling all Parlement magistrates to Troyes as a punishment on 15 August 1787, prohibiting six members from attending parliamentary sessions on 19 November, arresting two very important members of the Parlement, who opposed his reforms, on 6 May 1788, and even dissolving and depriving of all power the "Parlement," replacing it with a plenary court, on 8 May 1788. The former king was then quickly beheaded. The Count of Provence (comte de Provence), later Louis XVIII, was born 17 November 1755 at the Palace of Versailles to Louis, Dauphin of France and his wife Maria Josepha of Saxony. The other monarchies of Europe looked with concern upon the developments in France, and considered whether they should intervene, either in support of Louis or to take advantage of the chaos in France. Given the overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders, the verdict was a foregone conclusion – with 693 deputies voting guilty, none for acquittal, with 23 abstaining. They then later lived in exile in Prussia, the United Kingdom, and Russia. Paris. Courtesy of Wikipedia. Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands, where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. Madame Campan states that Louis spent an entire morning consoling his wife at her bedside, and swore to secrecy everyone who knew of the occurrence. After a series of military defeats resulted in Napoleon Bonaparte‘s abdication in 1814, Louis XVIII then gained what French royalists considered his rightful position as king. On 21 September 1792, the National Convention abolished the monarchy and deposed King Louis XVI who they later executed by guillotine. The royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly. A GROUP OF ROYAL LOUIS XVI SEAT FURNITURE PARCEL-GILT AND CREAM-PAINTED COMPRISING FOUR CHAIRS, FOUR ARMCHAIRS, ONE SOFA AND ONE STOOL STAMPED BY GEORGES JACOB SUPPLIED FOR COMTESSE DE PROVENCE, LAST QUARTER 18TH CENTURY In accordance with Bourbon tradition, he spent the first six months of his life nameless before he was baptized Louis Stanislas Xavier. Despite his signing of the "Civil Constitution of the Clergy", Louis had been described as a martyr by Pope Pius VI in 1793. On one hand, Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his brothers, the comte de Provence and the comte d'Artois, and he repeatedly sent messages to them requesting a halt to their attempts to launch counter-coups. , While Louis's blood dripped to the ground, several onlookers ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it. , Louis XVI hoped to use the American Revolutionary War as an opportunity to expel the British from India. Then when Louis began suffering from health problems and being “nailed to his armchair by [his] sufferings,” the Countess initiated regular visits every Wednesday.  Saint-Armand, Imbert de, 1892, p. 283-284. The Princess’s sister, Maria Teresa, was the Countess of Artois and married to the Count of Provence’s younger brother, and the Princess’s brother, Charles Emmanuel IV, was married to the Count of Provence’s younger sister, Clotilde. So, in 1776, Turgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned, to be replaced by Jacques Necker. Michelet's Histoire de la Révolution Française and Alphonse de Lamartine's Histoire des Girondins, in particular, showed the marks of the feelings aroused by the revolution's regicide. Philip was the first Bourbon king of Spain, the country's present ruling house. Louis XVII, titular king of France, second son of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy. "From Royal Dignity to Republican Austerity: the Ritual for the Reception of Louis XVI in the French National Assembly (1789–1792). The first one, in 1779, a few months after the birth of her first child, is mentioned in a letter to her daughter, written in July by empress Maria Theresa. 2 Pt. The deeper realization, that the king had in fact repudiated the Revolution, was an even greater shock for people who until then had seen him as a good king who governed as a manifestation of God's will. In Captain of the Guard (1930), he is played by Stuart Holmes.  As tensions in Paris rose and he was pressured to accept measures from the Assembly against his will, Louis XVI and the queen plotted to secretly escape from France. However, the Revolution had thoroughly disorganised the army, and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. “Neither his family nor the dignified clergy could get him to receive the last sacraments. The favor the King felt for the Countess became more obvious in 1821 when he razed the Château of Saint Ouen and employed Jacques-Marie Huvé to build a residence. In effect, he headed a secret council of advisers to Louis XVI, which tried to preserve the monarchy; these schemes proved unsuccessful, and were exposed later when the armoire de fer was discovered.  Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rule in India, in 1782–1783, fighting the British fleet along the coasts of India and Ceylon. According to Madame Campan, Marie Antoinette's lady-in-waiting, the queen also suffered two miscarriages. Other commemorations of Louis XVI include: King Louis XVI has been portrayed in numerous films. Louis XVIII Louis XVIII, 1755–1824, king of France (1814–24), brother of King Louis XVI. The war cost 1,066 million livres, financed by new loans at high interest (with no new taxes). In June 1789, the Third Estate unilaterally declared itself the National Assembly. Now unpopular to both the commoners and the aristocracy, Louis XVI was therefore only very briefly able to impose his decisions and reforms, for periods ranging from 2 to 4 months, before having to revoke them. Despite this, he still hoped to avoid war.  Saint-Armand, Imbert de, 1892, p. 288. Within three short months, the majority of the king's executive authority had been transferred to the elected representatives of the Nation. On the underside, it has the LSX monogram in iron red for Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count of Provence, brother of King Louis XVI and future Louis XVIII. On 21 June 1791, Louis XVI attempted to flee secretly with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France, where he would join the émigrés and be protected by Austria. This convocation was one of the events that transformed the general economic and political malaise of the country into the French Revolution. Before his burial, a short religious service was held in the Madeleine church (destroyed in 1799) by two priests who had sworn allegiance to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. On 27 August, Leopold and Frederick William II of Prussia, in consultation with émigrés French nobles, issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe in the well-being of Louis and his family, and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. The Comte de Provence, whose intellect and education were on a par, concealed beneath a prudent dignity his regret at not being put by fate in the first rank. Can't the King do it?". After 1778, Great Britain switched its focus to the West Indies, as defending the sugar islands was considered more important than trying to recover the thirteen colonies. Epoque Louis XVI, après 1787. On 21 September, the National Assembly declared France to be a Republic, and abolished the monarchy. However, this intervention was a disaster for the image of the Queen, who was named "l'Autrichienne" (a pun in French meaning "Austrian", but the "chienne" suffix can mean "bitch") on account of it. It was initially thought the property was for the Duchess of Angoulême, but on 2 May 1821 when the first stones were laid, it was the Countess who was there with the King. His fear of being manipulated by her for imperial purposes caused him to behave coldly towards her in public. Cet article liste les ducs, comtes, puis marquis de Provence. 21 août 2018 - Né le 23 Août 1754. I understand my email and name will be used only to communicate with me and will not be shared with 3rd parties. As Louis XVI mounted the scaffold, he appeared dignified and resigned. "The Execution of Louis XVI and the End of the French Monarchy. Like his mother and father, he thought that the Austrians were treacherous and the Prussians were overly ambitious. From an early age, Louis-Auguste was encouraged in another of his interests, locksmithing, which was seen as a useful pursuit for a child. However, their relationship was not a happy one, and they separated on the grounds of “incompatibility of temper.” Later, when she appealed to Louis XVIII to him to protect her from her resentful husband, she gained his notice. France still maintained a strong influence in the West Indies, and in India maintained five trading posts, leaving opportunities for disputes and power-play with Great Britain.. Louis's formal style before the revolution was "Louis XVI, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Louis XVI, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". Afterward, Louis XVI, his severed head placed between his feet, was buried in an unmarked grave, with quicklime spread over his body. The Girondins were partial to keeping the deposed king under arrest, both as a hostage and a guarantee for the future. After this, Louis XVI and his new Controller-General des finances, Étienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne, tried to simply force the Parlement de Paris to register the new laws and fiscal reforms. He was also said to be studious and a prodigious reader. Louis-Auguste was overlooked by his parents who favored his older brother, Louis, duc de Bourgogne, who was regarded as bright and handsome but who died at the age of nine in 1761. Eventually, the royal couple became the parents of four children. , While the National Assembly worked painstakingly towards a constitution, Louis and Marie-Antoinette were involved in plans of their own. Beyond escape, they hoped to raise an "armed congress" with the help of the émigrés, as well as assistance from other nations with which they could return and, in essence, recapture France. 72 of the deputies voted for the death penalty, but subject to several delaying conditions and reservations. At her persuasion he consented.”. On the other hand, Louis was alienated from the new democratic government both by its negative reaction to the traditional role of the monarch and in its treatment of him and his family. She was also considered pretty, amiable, and intelligent. Charles X was the last senior Bourbon to rule France. He was recognized as king by the émigrés after the death (1795) of Louis XVII. This was often done through his secretly nominated regent, the Cardinal Loménie de Brienne. The French expeditionary force arrived in North America in July 1780. When Louis XVI acceded to the throne in 1774, he was nineteen years old. His mother never recovered from the loss of her husband and died on 13 March 1767, also from tuberculosis. The legal background of many of the deputies made it difficult for a great number of them to accept an execution without the due process of law, and it was voted that the deposed monarch be tried before the National Convention, the organ that housed the representatives of the sovereign people. Larmuseau et al. In Sacha Guitry's Si Versailles m'était conté, Louis was portrayed by one of the film's producers, Gilbert Bokanowski, using the alias Gilbert Boka. Il est 5H du matin, Cléry, le valet de chambre du roi réveille Louis XVI. The two writers did not share the same sociopolitical vision, but they agreed that, even though the monarchy was rightly ended in 1792, the lives of the royal family should have been spared. Lack of compassion at that moment contributed to a radicalization of revolutionary violence and to greater divisiveness among Frenchmen. His own independent household was also established and by 1773 was so extravagant with its 300 servants his contemporaries were astounded. , On 15 January 1793, the convention, composed of 721 deputies, voted on the verdict. In Start the Revolution Without Me, Louis XVI is portrayed by Hugh Griffith as a laughable cuckold. Vergennes and Maurepas refused to support the Austrian position, but the intervention of Marie Antoinette in favor of Austria obliged France to adopt a position more favorable to Austria, which in the treaty of Teschen was able to get in compensation a territory whose population numbered around 100,000 persons. La princesse est la soeur de trois futurs rois de France : le duc de Berry (Louis XVI), le comte de Provence (Louis XVIII) et le comte d'Artois (Charles X). Second, the royal treasury was financially destitute to a crippling degree, leaving it incapable of sustaining its own imposed reforms. As authority dissipated from him and reforms were clearly becoming unavoidable, there were increasingly loud calls for him to convoke the Estates-General, which had not met since 1614 (at the beginning of the reign of Louis XIII). She married Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, the Comte de Provence and the brother of Louis XVI and the future Louis XVIII of France in May 1771.  The French nobility reacted to the proposed reforms with hostility, and successfully opposed their implementation. One questioned, "Can the King do it? Following these two events the Girondins could no longer keep the king from trial. This misleading publication led the people of France to believe the kingdom ran a modest surplus. His desire to be loved by his people is evident in the prefaces of many of his edicts that would often explain the nature and good intention of his actions as benefiting the people, such as reinstating the parlements. Un portrait 24 dc 2016. , On Monday, 21 January 1793, Louis XVI, at age 38, was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution. By the spring of 1824, it became evident the King’s health was even worse and that he had no more than a few months to live. France and Spain planned to invade the British Isles themselves with the Armada of 1779, but the operation never went ahead. Within 24 hours, the royal family was arrested at Varennes-en-Argonne shortly after Jean-Baptiste Drouet, who recognised the king from his profile on a 50 livres assignat (paper money), had given the alert. This time period was exemplary in its demonstration of an institution's deliberation while in their last standing moments.. Further, it can be deleted based on my request. Louis-Auguste's shyness and, among other factors, the young age and inexperience of the newlyweds (who were near total strangers to each other: they had met only two days before their wedding) meant that the 15-year-old bridegroom failed to consummate the union with his 14-year-old bride. Louis could no longer be considered a hostage or as leverage in negotiations with the invading forces. Author: Barry Jones. As a consequence, Bussy moved his troops to the Isle de France (now Mauritius) and later contributed to the French effort in India in 1783. Public domain. Little by little, we will find reasons for sacrificing the many for the happiness of the many, and we will think it was a bargain. Le titre de comte de Provence devient ensuite tardivement un titre de courtoisie à la Cour. Louis XVI (Louis-Auguste; French pronunciation: ; 23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was the last king of France before the fall of the monarchy during the French Revolution.He was referred to as Citizen Louis Capet during the four months just before he was executed by guillotine.In 1765, upon the death of his father, Louis, Dauphin of France, he became the new Dauphin. Later, in June 1791, when the flight to Varennes was undertaken by the royal family, the Count of Provence and his wife successfully escape and fled to the Austrian Netherlands. On 26 December, his counsel, Raymond Desèze, delivered Louis's response to the charges, with the assistance of François Tronchet and Malesherbes. After the situation had been defused by Lafayette, head of the Garde nationale, the king and his family were brought by the crowd to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, the reasoning being that the king would be more accountable to the people if he lived among them in Paris. Louis-Auguste, a strong and healthy boy but very shy, excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin, history, geography, and astronomy and became fluent in Italian and English. In Marie Antoinette (1938), he was played by Robert Morley. (2010).. , The 19th-century historian Jules Michelet attributed the restoration of the French monarchy to the sympathy that had been engendered by the execution of Louis XVI. Between 1816 and 1826, a commemorative monument, the Chapelle expiatoire, was erected at the location of the former cemetery and church.  In 1820, however, a memorandum of the Congregation of Rites in Rome, declaring the impossibility of proving that Louis had been executed for religious rather than political reasons, put an end to hopes of canonization. , France also intervened in Cochinchina following Mgr Pigneau de Béhaine's intervention to obtain military aid. Among the major events of Louis XVI's reign was his signing of the Edict of Versailles, also known as the Edict of Tolerance, on 7 November 1787, which was registered in the parlement on 29 January 1788.  He then declared himself innocent of the crimes of which he was accused, praying that his blood would not fall back on France. When questioned about his decision, he said, "It may be considered politically unwise, but it seems to me to be the general wish and I want to be loved. Comte de Provence : Liar! Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Courtesy of Wikipedia. In a context of civil and international war, Louis XVI was suspended and arrested at the time of the Insurrection of 10 August 1792. Le futur Louis XVIII est l’un de nos rois véritablement doués d’humour et ses deux frères en font les frais. In 1785, he appointed La Pérouse to lead a sailing expedition around the world. Hardman, John. Louis-Auguste de France, who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth, was born in the Palace of Versailles. , Louis XVI also encouraged major voyages of exploration. He occupied himself in this manner till the hour of déjeuner with the members of his family or with those personages whom the privileges of their respective offices authorized to partake of this first royal meal; and he proceeded accompanied by this cortége, to the breakfast-room. Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Ideals, Joel Felix & Louis Sixteen and Marie Antoinette 2006, "The History Project – University of California, Davis", TRAITÉ conclu à Versailles entre la France et la Cochinchine, représentée par Mgr Pigneau de Béhaine, évêque d'Adran, le 28 novembre 1787, "Déclaration du roi [Louis XVI] adressée à tous les Français, à sa sortie de ...", "Blood of Louis XVI 'found in gourd container, "Genetic genealogy reveals true Y haplogroup of House of Bourbon contradicting recent identification of the presumed remains of two French Kings", http://www.heraldica.org/topics/france/frarms.htm, "History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814", Citizens. In periods of bad harvests, it led to food scarcity which, during a particularly bad harvest in 1775, prompted the masses to revolt. Le Prince-Régent Louis Stanislas Xavier de France, Comte de Provence (1755 - 1824), frère puîné du défunt roi Louis XVI, guillotiné en 1793, proclamé régent au nom de son neveu Louis … " He, therefore, appointed an experienced advisor, Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, Comte de Maurepas who, until his death in 1781, would take charge of many important ministerial functions.  In a wider perspective, the failure was attributable to the king's indecision—he repeatedly postponed the schedule, allowing for smaller problems to become severe. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. He looked his end in the face without anxiety and without terror.”. Tandis que Louis XVI est arrêté à Varennes, le comte de Provence gagne la Belgique avant de rejoindre à Coblence, sur les bords du Rhin, son plus jeune frère, le comte d'Artois (futur Charles X), qui avait fui la France dès le lendemain de la prise de la Bastille. Some, like Honoré Mirabeau, secretly plotted with the Crown to restore its power in a new constitutional form. When the Count of Provence arrived in the Low Countries, he proclaimed himself de facto regent of France. In 1780, France sent Rochambeau and Grasse to help the Americans, along with large land and naval forces. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Loui… In the spring of 1776, Vergennes, the Foreign Secretary, saw an opportunity to humiliate France's long-standing enemy, Great Britain, and to recover territory lost during the Seven Years' War, by supporting the American Revolution. In July, the invasion began, with Brunswick's army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun. He thought only a small number of radicals in Paris were promoting a revolution that the people as a whole rejected. The voting took a total of 36 hours. Versed in the culture of letters, aided by a wonderful memory, he felt himself, in a literary aspect, to be far superior to the king his brother. Furthermore, he totally misunderstood the political situation.  Louis was frequently declared to be perfectly capable of sexual intercourse, as confirmed by Joseph II, and during the time he was supposed to have had the operation, he went out hunting almost every day, according to his journal. Louis XVIII, also called (until 1795) Louis-Stanislas-Xavier, Comte (count) de Provence, (born Nov. 17, 1755, Versailles, Fr.—died Sept. 16, 1824, Paris), king of France by title from 1795 and in fact from 1814 to 1824, except for the interruption of the Hundred Days, during which Napoleon attempted to recapture his empire. His courage, his resignation, and his calmness were extraordinary. Necker supported the American Revolution, and he carried out a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes. A France-Cochinchina alliance was signed through the Treaty of Versailles of 1787, between Louis XVI and Prince Nguyễn Ánh. Little by little their relationship grew. She was the protégée of Viscount Sosthène de La Rochefoucauld. , This marriage was met with hostility from the French public. In the letter, Joseph describes in astonishingly frank detail Louis's inadequate performance in the marriage bed and Antoinette's lack of interest in conjugal activity. Of his death, the French general and nobleman Auguste de Marmont who became Marshal of France, wrote: “The death of Louis XVIII … is one of the most admirable spectacles I ever beheld. He himself felt woefully unqualified to resolve the situation. Despite all the close relations, the Count of Provence’s marriage to Marie Joséphine was no love match. L'absence de qualités humaines le rend guère appréciable, certes... : Mais enfin bon, c'est un personnage historique qui s'étudie comme d'autres. Increasing tensions and violence were marked by events such as the storming of the Bastille, during which riots in Paris forced Louis to definitively recognize the legislative authority of the National Assembly. , When his father died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765, the eleven-year-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin.  361 of the deputies voted for Louis's immediate execution. Mirabeau's death on 7 April, and Louis XVI's indecision, fatally weakened negotiations between the Crown and moderate politicians. Louis's indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime, and his popularity deteriorated progressively. Out of seven children, he was the second son of Louis, the Dauphin of France, and thus the grandson of Louis XV of France. Découvrez Louis XVI et l’inoculation de la variole : quatre bulletins de santé royaux (24, 25, 26 et 29 juin 1774) analysée par Pierre-Yves BEAUREPAIRE au travers d’œuvres et d’images d’archive. However, the British defeated the main French fleet in 1782 and successfully defended Jamaica and Gibraltar. "Dictionary of World Biography". The historian Jules Michelet later argued that the death of the former king led to the acceptance of violence as a tool for happiness. 2. Thus, the funds of the Liste Civile, voted annually by the National Assembly, were partially assigned to secret expenses in order to preserve the monarchy. Louis Charles became dauphin on the death of his elder brother on the 4th of June 1789. After he made the sign of the cross, the king ordered the door to be opened to the officers of his household, and to the great dignitaries of the court, the church, and the army…These courtiers formed a circle, or passed before him, whilst his pages and his valèts-de-chambre finished his toilette, held the looking-glass for him, and brought him, on golden trays, the coats, the decorations, and the sword, in which he was dressed for the remainder of the day. Beginning in 1791, Montmorin, Minister of Foreign Affairs, started to organize covert resistance to the revolutionary forces. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. pp. On Thursday, the 15th of September, the King’s breathing became labored and around one o’clock in the morning on the 16th it was announced “the King is dead.” As Louis XVIII had no children, the crown passed to his brother, the Count of Artois who became Charles X. Upon his grandfather Louis XV's death on 10 May 1774, he assumed the title King of France and Navarre, until 4 September 1791, when he received the title of King of the French until the monarchy was abolished on 21 September 1792. Porticodoro / SmartCGArt Media Productions – Classical Orchestra. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony, the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland.