Ichkeul National Park, in the northernmost part of the country, was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1980. Updates? Africa’s highest temperature, about 131 °F (55 °C), was recorded in Kebili, a town in central Tunisia. . Explore. Temperatures at Sousse average 44 °F (7 °C) in January and 89 °F (32 °C) in August. 278,252 Pages. Prices. List View List. The most notable immigration was that of the Spanish Moors (Muslims), which began after the fall of Sevilla (Seville), Spain, as a result of the Reconquista in 1248 and which turned into a veritable exodus in the early 17th century. Then from about 1100 BC the Phoeniciansfrom what is now Lebanon settled and traded in the area. Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the Mediterranean.The city was originally known as Kart-hadasht (new city) to distinguish it from the older Phoenician city of Utica nearby. More acceptable were Aḥmad’s steps to integrate Arabic-speaking native Tunisians fully into the government, which had long been dominated by mamlūks (military slaves) and Turks. The first Punic War between Carthage an… See if your geographic knowledge points north or south in this journey through Africa. From that time until the establishment of the French protectorate in 1881, Tunisian rulers had to placate the larger powers while working to strengthen the state from within. During the 1990s the government sponsored the construction of a number of dams to control flooding, preserve runoff, and recharge the water table. Aside from these and from the plains of the Haute Steppe region, where some clay soils of medium fertility may be found, soils in the rest of the country tend to be rocky or sandy. This is a whole app is very easy to use. Tunisia to͞onē´zhə, tyo͞o– [key], Fr. Tunisia. Generally, from mid-autumn to mid-spring, when three-fourths of the annual total occurs, northern Tunisia receives more than 16 inches of rainfall, and the steppe region receives from 4 to 16 inches (100 to 400 mm). Carthage fought a series of wars with its rival, Rome. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. However, throughout the centuries Tunisia has received various waves of immigration that have included Phoenicians, sub-Saharan Africans, Jews, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs; Muslim refugees from Sicily settled in Al-Sāḥil after their homeland was captured by the Normans in 1091. Land. The kitchen, half of it roofed over and the rest an open courtyard, was a long vertical passage toward the light. The most famous people of the ancient world to mark the area of modern-day Tunisia were the Phoenicians, who settled here in the 1st millennium BCE and went on to found their legendary capital of Carthage. It was made during the reformist ministry of Khayr al-Dīn (1873–77), one of the most effective statesmen of the 19th-century Muslim world. The highest mountain, Mount Chambi (Al-Shaʿnabī), located near the centre of the Algerian border, rises to 5,066 feet (1,544 metres), while Mount Zaghwān (Zaghouan), about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Tunis, reaches 4,249 feet (1,295 metres). Africa Destinations. $5 - $10; $10 - $25; $25 - $50; Over $50; Formats. We'll give it a try. The amount of precipitation, all falling as rain, varies considerably from north to south. Slowly this city became stronger. Although the story is certainly apocryphal, Carthage nonetheless grew into one of the great cities and preeminent powers of antiquity, and its colonies and entrepôts were scattered throughout the western Mediterranean region. Book Description. The population of Tunisia is essentially Arab Berber. Eugene Roe; Project maintenance. Although the Arabs initially unified North Africa, by 1230 a separate Tunisian dynasty had been established by the Ḥafṣids. Register Military. He did, in 1861, proclaim the first constitution (dustūr; also destour) in the Arabic-speaking world, but this step toward representative government was cut short by runaway debt, a problem exacerbated by the government’s practice of securing loans from European bankers at exorbitant rates. Roman Africa, for example, was the most intensively Christianized portion of North Africa, and Ifrīqiyyah was later more quickly and more thoroughly Islamicized. A single major city, Tunis, dominated the countryside both politically and culturally. Tunisia is briefly taken in 1534 by the most famous corsair of them all, Khair ed-Din (known to the Europeans as Barbarossa). Tunisia became a French protectorate in 1881 and remained under French rule until March 1956 when it gained independence, followed by the promulgation of a new constitution on 1 June 1959. However they came into conflict with Rome. March 20, 1956, is Independence Day, when Tunisia gained its independence fromFrance. 1 - 20 of 46 results. Followers of Generals de Gaulle and Giraud were still unable to unite in a common cause. At night, each locked himself in his room, but in the morning, life was always communal. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their … The following discussion offers a brief summary of Tunisia’s early history but mainly focuses on Tunisia since about 1800. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Temperatures are moderated by the sea, being less extreme at Sousse on the coast, for example, than at Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) inland. Independence under the Neo-Destour Party (1956–2011), Factional tension, compromise, and a new constitution, Dissatisfaction with the political establishment and the election of Kais Saied. (Page of tag Tunisia) During the 8th and 9th centuries BC, the Phoenicians became the first of the many civilizations to leave their mark on Tunisia. Rome prevailed in the mid-2nd century bce, razed Carthage, and ruled the region for the following 500 years. However, enemies from within and European intrigues from without conspired to force him from office. After about 5,000 BC they began farming although they still used stone tools. Paperback; NOOK Book; Hardcover; Tunisia - History. The humid coastal plain in the east, running between the Gulf of Hammamet and the Gulf of Gabes, where Tunisia’s thriving olive plantations are found, is the most agriculturally productive of these coarse-textured soil areas. Dec 15, 2015 - Lamine Bey, first king and last bey of Tunisia. The final collapse of the Tunisian beylik came during the reign of Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq (1859–82). Muslim Andalusians migrated to the area after having been forced out of Spain during the Reconquista, particularly following the defeat of the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1492. Tunisia is the smallest of the Maghrib states and consequently the most cohesive. Tunisia’s culture is highly diverse, in part because of long periods of Ottoman and then French rule but also because populations of Jews and Christians have lived among a Muslim majority for centuries. After achieving independence in 1956, Tunisia pursued a progressive social agenda and sought to modernize its economy under two long-serving presidents, Habib Bourguiba and Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali. Tunisia's geographical location has meant that many different peoples have entered and dominated the country. Because the principal military threat had long come from neighbouring Algeria, the reigning bey of Tunisia, Ḥusayn, cautiously went along with assurances from the French that they had no intention of colonizing Tunisia. Add to Wishlist. Ancient Origins articles related to Tunisia in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. Tunisia was called IfrÄ«qiyyah in the early centuries of the Islamic period. The climate of the country, similar to the topography, is greatly varied. Founded by the Arabs in the year 670, Kairouan in Arabic means ‘military camp’. Category:History of Tunisia | Military Wiki | Fandom. This uprising almost overthrew the regime, but the government ultimately suppressed it through a combination of guile and brutality. More easily controlled from within than any other Maghrib country, Tunisia was also more open to the influence of people and ideas from abroad. The history of Tunisia reveals this rich past where different successive Mediterranean cultures had a strong presence. Tunisia’s security was directly threatened in 1835, when the Ottoman Empire deposed the ruling dynasty in Libya and reestablished direct Ottoman rule. The next bey, Muḥammad (1855–59), tried to ignore Europe, but this was no longer possible. Aḥmad Bey, who ruled from 1837 to 1855, was an avowed modernizer and reformer. In time the Carthaginians built an empire in the Mediterranean. Other cities include Sfax (Ṣafāqis), Sousse (Sūsah), and Gabès (Qābis) on the fertile coast and Kairouan (Al-Qayrawān) and El-Kef (Al-Kāf) in the arid interior. But before reaching this square of pure blue sky, it received, from a multitude of windows, all the smoke, the smells, and the gossip of our neighbours. Omissions? This book examines the history of Tunisia from the mid-nineteenth century to the present with an emphasis on political, social, economic and cultural developments. Tunisia’s accessible Mediterranean Sea coastline and strategic location have attracted conquerors and visitors throughout the ages, and its ready access to the Sahara has brought its people into contact with the inhabitants of the African interior. The Phoenicians marched into Tunisia around 1100 BC, establishing their capital, Carthage (just north of today’s Tunis), as the main power in the western Mediterranean by the 6th century. Popular pages. Add new page. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. This great ethnic diversity is still seen in the variety of Tunisian family names. Most visited articles. Beach at Al-Marsā, on the Gulf of Tunis, northeastern Tunisia. Ḥusayn Bey even accepted the idea that Tunisian princes would rule the cities of Constantine and Oran. Amounts are also highly irregular from one year to another, and irregularity increases southward toward the desert. The precipitation also greatly varies, as the north receives significantly more rainfall than the south. A Brief History of Tunisia Muslim Conquest. By about 8,000 BC human beings lived in what is now Tunisia by hunting and gathering. In Tunisia, women can pass on their names and nationalities to their children. By the sixth and fifth centuries B.C., the great city-state of Carthage (derived from the Phoenician name for “new city”) dominated much of the western Mediterranean. Farther south, streams are intermittent and largely localized in the form of wadis, which are subject to seasonal flooding and terminate inland in chotts. For a more detailed treatment of earlier periods and of the country in its regional context, see North Africa. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The final blow to Tunisia’s sovereignty came at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, when Britain acquiesced to France’s control of Tunisia. That name, in turn, comes from the Roman word for Africa and the name also given by the Romans to their first African colony following the Punic Wars against the Carthaginians in 264–146 bce. Saved by Emperor Reynard IV. QUICK ADD. It is important as a winter sanctuary for such birds as the greylag goose, coot, and wigeon. Tunisia’s most fertile soils are found in the well-watered intermontane valleys in the north, where rich sandy clay soils formed from alluvium or soils high in lime content cover the valley bottoms and plains. Scorpions are found in all regions; among dangerous snakes are the horned viper and the cobra. List of beys of Tunis. The temperatures are mild along the coast. The variation in climate leads to the great diversity of ecoregions in Tunisia. Aḥmad abolished slavery and took other modernizing steps intended to bring Tunisia more in line with Europe, but he also exposed his country to Europe’s infinitely greater economic and political power. 11,274,000), 63,378 sq mi (164,150 sq km), NW Africa. The Romans ruled and settled in North Africa until the 5th century, when the Roman Empire fell and... From Arab Center to French Protectorate. The Phoenicians' expanding regional power brought them to the attention of the Ancient Greeks, and late…