Count Roland, who does not agree with him, leaps up and begins to contradict him. The poem’s probable author was a Norman poet, Turold, whose name is … Composé de 4000 vers, ce poème raconte, basé sur des faits historique, le massacre de l'arrière-garde de l'armée de Charlemagne au col de Roncevaux, le 15 août 778 Licence: Domaine public 1. According to one 12th-century legend from the French town of Rocamadour, Roland threw the sword into a cliffside. It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature and exists in various manuscript versions, which testify to its enormous and … [14], For the 1978 film starring Klaus Kinski, see, Oral performance compared to manuscript versions, Taylor, Andrew, "Was There a Song of Roland?" EMBED (for hosted blogs and item tags) Want more? The catalyst for victory is the good magician, Urlubulu, who lives in a lake, and flies through the air on the back of his magic blue bird. Besgun, chief cook of Charlemagne's army; guards Ganelon after Ganelon's treachery is discovered. The French traitor in The Song of Roland, who is actually Roland's cowardly step-father, is Ganelon – very likely the inspiration for Luzzati's traitor and wicked magician, Gano. En bibliothèque - Le manuscrit de la Chanson de Roland est à la bibliothèque Bodléienne d'Oxford. (39) + xxiii + 173pp. Publisher: Le Livre de Poche. Accordingly, Marsile sends out messengers to Charlemagne, promising treasure and Marsile's conversion to Christianity if the Franks will go back to France. Most frequently terms . » Nayme répond : Some favour an earlier dating, because it allows one to say that the narrative was inspired by the Castilian campaigns of the 1030s, and that the poem went on to be a major influence in the First Crusade. The narrator is openly biased towards the Franks. Thus, he is torn apart by having four galloping horses tied one to each arm and leg and thirty of his relatives are hanged. Luzzati's original verse story in Italian is about the plight of a beautiful maiden called Biancofiore – White Flower, or Blanchefleur – and her brave hero, Captain Rinaldo, and Ricardo and his paladins – the term used for Christian knights engaged in Crusades against the Saracens and Moors. The poem opens as Charlemagne, having conquered all of Spain except Saragossa, receives overtures from the Saracen king and sends the knight Ganelon, Roland’s stepfather, to negotiate peace terms. Bramimonde converts to Christianity, her name changing to Juliana. The laisse is therefore an assonal, not a rhyming stanza. Around 1170, a version of the French poem was translated into the Middle High German Rolandslied by Konrad der Pfaffe[9] (formerly thought to have been the author of the Kaiserchronik). La Chanson de Roland (Extrait de la mort de Roland) Auteur : Anonyme Catégorie : Poésie D'un auteur inconnu la chanson de Roland est une chanson de geste datant du XI siècle. ISBN 10: 2253053414 . Trapped against crushing odds, the headstrong hero Roland is the paragon of the unyielding warrior victorious in defeat. La Chanson de Roland (Extrait de la mort de Roland) D'un auteur inconnu la chanson de Roland est une chanson de geste datant du XI siècle. An alternate hypothesis by Nathan Love is that AOI indicates locations where the scribe or copyist deviated from the primary manuscript.[7]. Placed in the foreground is the personality clash between the recklessly courageous Roland and his more prudent friend Oliver (Olivier), which is also a conflict between divergent conceptions of feudal loyalty. Charles l'entend et les Français l'entendent. Other editions - View all. In the Oxford version Oliver is reconciled in the end, he gives Roland his death-blow by accident, his eyes blinded by wounds. Despite this, he blows his olifant to summon revenge, until his temples burst and he dies a martyr's death. The narrator gives few explanations for characters' behaviour. After two manuscripts were found in 1832 and 1835, the Song of Roland became recognized as France's national epic when an edition was published in 1837. Li reis Marsilie la tient, ki Deu nen aimet. Oliver dies hating the man he loves – the big boasting courageous fool who was more concerned with his own glory than with the victory of his faith. Throughout the book, he repeatedly compares himself and other characters with the characters of "Roland". Elle relate des guerres et exploits historiques, sous un registre épique. La chanson de Roland. The bulk of the poem is adjudged to date from before the Crusades (which started in 1098), but there are a few items where questions remain about these items being late additions shortly after the Crusades started. Charlemagne is contrasted with Baligant. The Franks fight well, but are outnumbered, until almost all Roland's men are dead and he knows that Charlemagne's army can no longer save them. N'i ad castel ki devant lui remaigne; Mur ne citete n'i est remés a fraindre, Fors Sarraguce, ki est en une muntaigne. Some scholars estimate that the poem was written, possibly by a poet named Turold (Turoldus in the manuscript itself), between approximately 1040 and 1115, and most of the alterations were performed by about 1098. La chanson de Roland, poëme français du Moyen Âge traduit en vers modernes par Alfred Lehugeur Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item . With the assistance of the wicked and treacherous magician, Gano of Maganz, Biancofiore is stolen from her fortress castle, and taken to become the reluctant wife of the Sultan. On a narrative level, the Song of Roland features extensive use of repetition, parallelism, and thesis-antithesis pairs. The protagonist Roland, Charlemagne's nephew, nominates his stepfather Ganelon as messenger. Flag this item for. This point is expressed by Andrew Taylor, who notes,[8] "[T]he Roland song was, if not invented, at the very least constructed. Ganelon, who fears being murdered by the enemy and accuses Roland of intending this, takes revenge by informing the Saracens of a way to ambush the rear guard of Charlemagne's army, led by Roland, as the Franks re-enter France through the mountain passes. Joseph Haydn and Nunziano Porta's opera, Orlando Paladino (1782), the most popular of Haydn's operas during his lifetime, is based loosely on The Song of Roland via Ariosto's version, as are Antonio Vivaldi and Grazio Braccioli's 1727 opera and their earlier 1714 version. Preview. It is also adapted by Stephen King, in the Dark Tower series in which Roland Deschain wishes to save the Dark Tower from the Crimson King. A big brave fool. 1941. Roland proposes Ganelon for the dangerous mission to Sarrogossa; Ganelon designates Roland to man the rearguard. Othon, guards the French dead while Charlemagne pursues the Saracen forces. La chanson de roland in English The Song of Roland is an epic poem based on the Battle of Roncevaux in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. File: EPUB, 408 KB. No_Favorite. DiVanna, Isabel N. "Politicizing national literature: the scholarly debate around La chanson de Roland in the nineteenth century. Whether you've loved the book or not, if you give your honest and detailed thoughts then people will find new books that are right for them. Many scholars have hypothesized that the marking may have played a role in public performances of the text, such as indicating a place where a jongleur would change the tempo. [2] This copy dates between 1129 and 1165 and was written in Anglo-Norman. While sleeping, Charlemagne is told by Gabriel to ride to help King Vivien and bemoans his life. La Chanson de Roland, Ludovic Vitet; La Mort de Roland Grandes Chroniques de France, enluminées par Jean Fouquet. Poème Contexte Conclusion Roland personnage héroïque Le preux Roland a la bouche sanglante, De son cerveau, les tempes sont rompues, Il corne encore avec peine et douleur. La chanson de Roland, texte critique, traduction et commentaire, grammaire et glossaire par Léon Gautier, professeur à l'École des chartes. Paris: Editions de la gestefrancor. This article was most recently revised and updated by,, The Online Medieval and Classical Library - The Song of Roland, Roland - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Year: 1990. In 1516 Ludovico Ariosto published his epic Orlando Furioso, which deals largely with characters first described in the Song of Roland. The date of composition is put in the period between 1040 and 1115: an early version beginning around 1040 with additions and alterations made up until about 1115. According to the Song of Roland, the legendary sword called Durandal was first given to Charlemagne by an angel. Please login to your account first; Need help? In war one always chooses the wrong hero. dans le cadre du Berceau de la langue du 16 novembre au 2 décembre 2017 La Chanson de Roland C’est l’un des plus anciens textes littéraires de langue française qui nous soient parvenus. Please login to your account first; Need help? Les passages-clefs de la Chanson de Roland illustrés et accompagnés du texte français et anglo-normand. You can write a book review and share your experiences. The cover artwork was hand painted by Jordan Raskin. The Franks discover Ganelon's betrayal and keep him in chains until his trial, where Ganelon argues that his action was legitimate revenge, not treason. Further, this novel bookends the story with William the Conqueror's use of the poem as a motivator for Norman forces prior to the Battle of Hastings in 1066. Graphic Violence ; Graphic Sexual Content ; texts. La chanson de Roland, poëme de Theroulde, texte critique, accompagné d'une tr., d'une intr. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. File: PDF, 16.02 MB. Voir aussi : Monin, Le Roman de Roncevaux, Paris, 1833, in-8; et un article de Vitet dans la Revue des Deux Mondes, juin 1852. Language: french. The Muslims ambush them at Roncesvalles and the Christians are overwhelmed. The poem’s probable author was a Norman poet, Turold, whose name is introduced in its last line. He climbs to the top of a hill looking south into Spain. Bédier Joseph. 118) Chanson De Roland Guilhem … Paris, Éditions de la Geste francor, 1940-44 (OCoLC)551474385 Language: french. A Latin poem, Carmen de Prodicione Guenonis, was composed around 1120, and a Latin prose version, Historia Caroli Magni (often known as "The Pseudo-Turpin") even earlier. Édition classique à l'usage des élèves de seconde -- 11e éd. You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me . The lines are decasyllabic (containing ten syllables), and each is divided by a strong caesura which generally falls after the fourth syllable. [3] There are also eight further manuscripts, and three fragments, of other poems on the subject of Roland.[4]. He is depicted as a key figure in halting the advance of the Arabs into France. Extrait du texte original de la Chanson de Roland : Carles li reis, nostre emperere magnes, Set anz tuz pleins ad estet en Espaigne : Tresqu'en la mer cunquist la tere altaigne . [But] the story had been tidied up. Oliver pleads with Roland to blow his horn to call for help, but Roland tells him that blowing his horn in the middle of the battle would be an act of cowardice. - trad.) Battling with these good people are the wicked Moors – North African Muslims and Arabs – and their Sultan, in Jerusalem. Flying through the air on the back of a magic bird is equivalent to flying on a magic hippogriff. Nom de sa capitale impériale: Identifier les 2 personnages au bout des flèches sur l’image à gauche La chanson de Roland: La Chanson de Roland est la plus célèbre des chansons de geste. File: PDF, 505 KB . The Chanson de Roland has an important place in the background of Graham Greene's The Confidential Agent, published in 1939. The story moves at a fast pace, occasionally slowing down and recounting the same scene up to three times but focusing on different details or taking a different perspective each time. Pages: 279. Pinabel challenges Thierry to trial by combat. The poem takes the historical Battle of Roncesvalles (Roncevaux) in 778 as its subject. The effect is similar to a film sequence shot at different angles so that new and more important details come to light with each shot. 8 – La mort de Roland (The Death of Roland) Roland remains alone on the battle field, being mortally wounded. They have been there for seven years, and the last city standing is Saragossa, held by the Muslim King Marsile. It is the oldest surviving major work of French literature and exists in various manuscript versions, which testify to its enormous and enduring popularity from the 12th to 16th centuries. Charlemagne and his noblemen gallop back even though Count Ganelon tries to trick them. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Rinaldo is, of course, the Italian equivalent of Ronald. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. If Roland continues to refuse, Oliver will not let Roland see his sister again whom Roland loves the most. Bérengier, one of the twelve paladins killed by Marsile's troops; kills Estramarin; killed by Grandoyne. [12] The ballad is one of many sung during the Faroese folkdance tradition of chain dancing. flag. The names Roland and Orlando are cognates. By this the Franks are convinced of Ganelon's treason. Directed by Frank Cassenti. The composition of the poem is firm and coherent, the style direct, sober, and, on occasion, stark. When Charlemagne kills Baligant, the Muslim army scatters and flees, leaving the Franks to conquer Saragossa. Send-to-Kindle or Email . The Picture Lion paperback edition (William Collins, London, 1973) is a paperback imprint of the Hutchinson Junior Books edition (1969), which credits the English translation to Hutchinson Junior Books. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Portails : Littérature médiévale. Roland, whose judgment is clouded by his personal preoccupation with renown, rejects Oliver’s advice to blow his horn and summon help from Charlemagne. The authors determined when writing both the screenplay and the novel to remain in the world created by the poem; thus Charles remains an older man near the end of his long reign rather than in 778 when the attack on the rearguard actually occurred. Year: 2015. It was also rendered into Occitan verse in the 14th- or 15th-century poem of Ronsasvals, which incorporates the later, southern aesthetic into the story. See more ideas about rycerze, historia, etos rycerski. Il a été publié par Francisque Michel en 1837, in-8°, et par Génin en 1850, in-8°. Returning to France, the emperor breaks the news to Aude, Roland’s betrothed and the sister of Oliver, who falls dead at his feet. Introduced in this tale are additional characters that inject intrigue and danger to the story, including Charles oldest son, Pepin, Marsilion's treacherous son, Saleem, and the scheming Byzantine emissary, Honorius. There is a single extant manuscript of the Song of Roland in Old French, held at the Bodleian Library at Oxford. It contained one tooth of Saint Peter, blood of Saint Basil, hair of Saint Denis, and a piece of the raiment of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and was supposedly the sharpest sword in all existence. Although set in the Carolingian era, The Song of Roland was written much later. On Roland’s refusal, the hopeless battle is joined, and the flower of Frankish knighthood is reduced to a handful of men. Main La Chanson de Roland. Other readers will always be interested in your opinion of the books you've read. The meaning of this word or annotation is unclear. share. In the 11th-century epic Roland des Roncesvalles is a legendary knight from the age of chivalry in France. He said to the king: ÒTo your misfortune will you trust Marsilie! Oltre mer, modern French Outremer, literally "oversea, beyond sea, other side of the sea", is a native French term from the classical Latin roots ultra = "beyond" and mare = "sea". Illuminated miniature from Grandes Chroniques de France, c1375-1380 (BnF Français 2813, fol. Meanwhile, Baligant, the powerful emir of Babylon, has arrived in Spain to help Marsile. Edition: Seconde. Dans le cycle des chansons que je dédie à mes associés et compagnons de route, c'est au tour de Roland ! Charlemagne's army is fighting the Muslims in Spain. The Song of Roland (French: La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th-century epic poem (chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. La Chanson de Roland, English The Song of Roland, Old French epic poem that is probably the earliest (c. 1100) chanson de geste and is considered the masterpiece of the genre. ISBN 13: 9782021242584. With Marsile's wife Bramimonde, Queen of Saragossa, Charlemagne and his men ride back to Aix, their capital in France. [10] A replication of the legendary sword can be found there, embedded into the cliff-face next to the town's sanctuary.[11]. Thierry, fights for Charlemagne in the judicial combat. Orlando Furioso (literally, Furious or Enraged Orlando, or Roland), includes Orlando's cousin, the paladin Rinaldo, who, like Orlando, is also in love with Angelica, a pagan princess. Tours, vers 1455-1460. As the army crosses the Pyrenees, the rear guard is surrounded at the pass of Roncesvalles by an overwhelming Saracen force. Speculum 76 (January 2001): 28-65, Author's Notes, The Silver Horn Echoes: A Song of Roland, iUniverse, July 2017 (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "AOI in the Chanson de Roland: A divergent hypothesis", "Rocamadour: Roland's sword, Durandal, leaves for the Cluny museum", Part of Runtsivalstríðið with Dansifelagið í Havn,,, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles needing additional references from December 2014, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-LCCN identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [9] Unlike later Renaissance and Romantic literature, the poem focuses on action rather than introspection. Send-to-Kindle or Email . While the council of barons assembled to decide the traitor's fate is initially swayed by this claim, partially out of fear of Ganelon's friend Pinabel who threatens to fight anyone who judges Ganelon guilty, one man, Thierry, argues that because Roland was serving Charlemagne when Ganelon delivered his revenge on him, Ganelon's action constitutes a betrayal. The epic poem is the first[1] and, along with The Poem of the Cid, one of the most outstanding examples of the chanson de geste, a literary form that flourished between the 11th and 16th centuries and celebrated legendary deeds. ISBN 13: 9782253053415. Primary characters in the novel include Charles (Charlemagne), Ganelon, Bishop Turpin, Oliver, Aude, Marsilion, Blancandarin and others recognizable from the poem. Charlemagne and his men, tired of fighting, accept his peace offer and select a messenger to Marsile's court. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. La chanson de Roland, Volume 2 Joseph Bédier Snippet view - 1927. Le roi leur dit : « Ce cor a longue haleine. This work is more closely based on a screenplay written by Michael Eging in 2008, simply known as "Song of Roland" and first optioned to Alan Kaplan at Cine LA that same year. Emanuele Luzzati's animated short film, I paladini di Francia, together with Giulio Gianini, in 1960, was turned into the children's picture-story book, with verse narrative, I Paladini de Francia ovvero il tradimento di Gano di Maganz, which translates literally as “The Paladins of France or the treachery of Ganelon of Mainz” (Ugo Mursia Editore, 1962). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. In his translation Konrad replaces French topics with generically Christian ones. His moral view is very black-and-white: the Franks are good, and the pagans are bad. Common terms and phrases. However, Archbishop Turpin intervenes and tells them that the battle will be fatal for all of them and so instructs Roland to blow his horn oliphant (the word is an old alternative to "elephant", and was used to refer to a hunting horn made from an elephant tusk) to call for help from the Frankish army. The emperor hears the call on their way to France. Language: french. The Song of Roland is part of the Matter of France (the Continental counterpart to the Arthurian legendarium known as the Matter of Britain), and related to Orlando Furioso. Item Preview Examen des passages où le texte . Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The poem is written in stanzas of irregular length known as laisses. Angels take his soul to Paradise. Combat of Roland and the giant Ferragut. The last stressed syllable of each line in a laisse has the same vowel sound as every other end-syllable in that laisse. The work was translated into Middle Dutch in the 13th century. 2017-07-25 - Explore Lotos's board "La chanson de Roland", followed by 198 people on Pinterest. The book explores the untold story of how Roland finds himself at Ronceveaux, betrayed by Ganelon and facing the expansive Saragossan host. The Song of Roland (French: La Chanson de Roland) is an 11th-century epic poem (chanson de geste) based on the Battle of Roncevaux Pass in 778, during the reign of Charlemagne. 196: 3 other sections not shown. Updates? By divine intervention, Thierry kills Pinabel. The characters are presented through what they do, not through what they think or feel. Chanson De Roland Manuscrit Enluminé Escrime Chronologie Enluminure Chronique Religieuse Sociologie Gravures. La Chanson de Roland Anonyme, lan Short (éd. Save for later. The occurrence of this term cannot be interpreted as showing influence from the Crusades; on the contrary, the way it is used, refer simply to a Muslim land, indicates that the author was unacquainted with the Crusades, and that the term was in French before the Crusades was held to refer to the far side of the Mediterranean. When Charlemagne and his men reach the battlefield, they find the dead bodies of Roland's men, who have been utterly annihilated. His army encounters that of Charlemagne at Roncesvalles, where the Christians are burying and mourning their dead. The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture, illuminated by Simon Marmion. With Klaus Kinski, Alain Cuny, Dominique Sanda, Pierre Clémenti. There is also Faroese adoption of this ballad named "Runtsivalstríðið" (Battle of Roncevaux). Textes de la Chanson de Roland. The poem ends with the trial and execution of Ganelon. On July 22, 2017, Michael Eging and Steve Arnold released a novel, The Silver Horn Echoes: A Song of Roland, inspired by the La Chanson de Roland. The warriors are stereotypes defined by a few salient traits; for example, Roland is loyal and trusting while Ganelon, though brave, is traitorous and vindictive. The Franks fight valiantly. The English translators, using the original illustrations, and the basic rhyme patterns, slightly simplify the plot, changing the Christians-versus-Muslim-Moors conflict into a battle between good and bad magicians and between golden knights and green knights. By supplying it with an appropriate epic title, isolating it from its original codicological context, and providing a general history of minstrel performance in which its pure origin could be located, the early editors presented a 4,002 line poem as sung French epic". As Ganelon predicted, Roland leads the rear guard, with the wise and moderate Oliver and the fierce Archbishop Turpin. An Old Norse version of the Song of Roland exists as Karlamagnús saga, and a translation into the artificial literary language of Franco-Venetian is also known; such translations contributed to the awareness of the story in Italy. The book's protagonist had been a Medieval scholar specialising in this work, until the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War forced him to become a soldier and secret agent. No price stated. Rafael Camacho Aceituno COMMENTAIRE “CHANSON DE ROLAND” Cet extrait est tiré de la plus ancienne chanson de geste qui soit parvenue nos jours, «La Chanson de Roland », écrite entre la fin du XIème et le début du XIIème siècle par des jongleurs. This makes the story tragedy, not just heroics".[13]. This was then republished, in English, as Ronald and the Wizard Calico (1969). In truth, Oliver strikes his friend down in full knowledge – because of what he has done to his men, all the wasted lives. Additional Physical Format: Online version: Chanson de Roland. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Oliver should have been the hero of that song, instead of being given second place with the blood-thirsty Bishop Turpin.(...) [6], Certain lines of the Oxford manuscript end with the letters "AOI". Those who prefer a later dating do so based upon what they interpret as brief references made to events of the First Crusade. We came into Spain seven full years ago; I conquered Noples and Commibles for you, I took Valterne and the land of Pine and Balaguer, Tuele and Sezille. Roland dies under a tree, facing south holding his sword Durendal and his olifant. The final text has about 4,000 lines of poetry. Corrections? King Marsilie acted in very treacherous wise. La chanson de Roland, Volume 2 Joseph Bédier Snippet view - 1927. In the story of the Song of Roland, the weapon is given to Roland, and he uses it to defend himself single-handedly against thousands of Muslim attackers. Early editors of The Song of Roland, informed in part by patriotic desires to produce a distinctly French epic, could thus overstate the textual cohesiveness of the Roland tradition. ", This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 00:59. Threatened by the might of Charlemagne's army of Franks, Marsile seeks advice from his wise man, Blancandrin, who counsels him to conciliate the Emperor, offering to surrender and giving hostages. Et particulièrement la laisse, ou strophe, plutôt émouvante (mais sans la moindre sensiblerie, ce n’est pas le genre de l’époque), où Charlemagne, rentré à Aix-la-Chapelle sa capitale (Aachen de nos jours) apprend à Aude la mort de son fiancé Roland. Angry because Roland proposed him for the dangerous task, Ganelon plots with the Saracens to achieve his stepson’s destruction and, on his return, ensures that Roland will command the rear guard of the army when it withdraws from Spain. Les Textes de la Chanson de Roland, édités par Raoul Mortier, 10 tomes, 1940-1944; Bibliographie Modifier. He unsuccessfully tries three times to break his sword on a rock, so that his enemies cannot take it. Though this encounter was actually an insignificant skirmish between Charlemagne’s army and Basque forces, the poem transforms Roncesvalles into a battle against Saracens and magnifies it to the heroic stature of the Greek defense of Thermopylae against the Persians in the 5th century bc. La chanson de Roland, texte critique accompagné d'une traduction nouvelle et précédé d'une introduction historique par Léon Gautier, professeur à l'École des chartes, avec eaux-fortes par Chifflant et V. Foulquier et un fac-similé Sémiologie et La chanson de Roland: Creator: Steele, Stephen: Publisher: University of British Columbia: Date Issued: 1987: Description: The Song of Roland's place in contemporary theoretical discussion is marked by ambiguity. They pursue the Muslims into the river Ebro, where the Muslims drown. Particularly, the book includes a full two pages of specific commentary, which is relevant to its 20th-century plot line: "Oliver, when he saw the Saracens coming, urged Roland to blow his horn and fetch back Charlemagne – but Roland wouldn't blow. In the text, the term d'oltre mer or l'oltremarin comes up three times in reference to named Muslims who came from oltre mer to fight in Spain and France. The name was commonly used by contemporary chroniclers to refer to the Latin Levant.[5]. BARTHES Roland. Les textes de la Chanson de Roland edites par RAOUL MORTIER. Commentaire sur la Chanson de Roland: texte critique de M. Genin. Omissions? Alternative Title: “The Song of Roland” La Chanson de Roland, English The Song of Roland, Old French epic poem that is probably the earliest (c. 1100) chanson de geste and is considered the masterpiece of the genre.